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Monoclonal antibodies: What are monoclonal antibodies? 21st October 2021

Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-made proteins that mimic the immune system's ability to fight harmful antigens such as viruses. A monoclonal antibody is a type of protein produced in the laboratory that can bind to substances in the body, including cancer cells. However, there are many types of monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a monoclonal antibody is... Continue reading
Polymerase Chain Reaction ASO PCR Continue reading...

Polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR) 18th October 2021

Allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR) is an alternative method for mutation detection. The advantage of ASO-PCR is that it is a fast, simple and non-radioactive method. Increasingly, many single base pair substitutions are being discovered that lead to inherited diseases, predisposition to genetic disorders and cancer. The ability to amplify specific DNA sequences by... Continue reading
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Moderna The History of the Company 17th October 2021

Moderna, Inc. is a US biotechnology and pharmaceutical company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It focuses on messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccine technologies. Moderna's vaccine platform inserts synthetic nucleoside-modified messenger RNA (modRNA) into human cells using a layer of lipid nanoparticles. This mRNA then reprograms the cells to elicit immune responses. Moderna develops therapeutic mRNA vaccines that... Continue reading
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Genetic Testing: methods and benefits. 11th January 2021

Genetic testing is a type of medical examination that identifies any changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. After getting its results, we can confirm or reject a suspected genetic disorder. In fact, the analysis also determines the risk of developing or passing on a genetic disorder.   Methods of Genetic Testing First, there are several... Continue reading

ATP5S: ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex subunit s (factor B) 19th December 2019

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyses ATP synthesis using an electrochemical proton gradient across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase consists of two interconnected complexes comprising multiple subunits: a soluble F1 catalytic core and a membrane-encompassing Fo component containing a proton channel. This gene encodes the... Continue reading
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What is Multidrug resistance? 25th November 2019

Multidrug resistance is the insensitivity or resistance of a microorganism to the administered antimicrobial medicines with different structures and the molecular formula (Tanwar, Das, Fatima, & Hameed, 2014). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the resistant microorganisms that include bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites are able to fight the antimicrobial drugs. As a result,... Continue reading