immunoglobulin D (lgD) Continue reading...

Secondary Antibodies Anti D immunoglobulin D (lgD) 22nd November 2021

What is anti D immunoglobulin D (lgD)? Immunoglobulin anti-D (lgD) secondary antibodies or Immunoglobulin D (lgD) is a monomeric antibody isotype that is expressed on the plasma membranes of immature B-lymphocytes. Anti-D immunoglobulin (lgD) is also produced in a secreted form found in small amounts in blood serum. The secreted IgD consists of two heavy chains of the delta class and two light chains. The function of IgD has long been an enigma and is… Continue reading
Antibody labelling Continue reading...

Antibody labelling 13th November 2021

Introduction Antibody labelling, or the attachment of a specific label to an antibody to aid detection or isolation/purification of a protein, is an important technique. Labelled antibodies are essential for immunity-based assays, such as the Western blots, los ELISA, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF). Labeled antibodies are also used to isolate and purify a single protein from a complex mixture of proteins. Antibodies, like other proteins, can be labelled with small molecules, radioisotopes,… Continue reading
polyclonal antibodies pAbs Continue reading...

What is a polyclonal antibodies (pAbs)? 7th November 2021

Polyclonal antibodies are produced by injecting a host species with a peptide or antigen that may or may not be conjugated to a hapten. What is a polyclonal antibodies? Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) are a complex mixture of several antibodies that are usually produced by different B-cell clones of an animal. These antibodies recognise and bind to many different epitopes of the same antigen and can therefore form lattices with the antigens. How are polyclonal antibodies… Continue reading
nanoantibodies Continue reading...

What are nanoantibodies? 5th November 2021

What are nanoantibodies? Many people wonder what are nanoantibodies? The nanoantibodies are a type of camelid-derived antibody, being much smaller than the usual antibodies, each of which is a conglomerate of two heavy chains and two heavy chains.¬†ligeras, intricately folded and bound to complex sugars. In other words, the nanoantibodies are tiny recombinantly produced antigen-binding VHH fragments derived from the alpaca heavy chain IgG antibody (HCAb). The domain VHH represents the smallest antibody fragment necessary… Continue reading
Immunoglobulin M lgM Continue reading...

Secondary Antibodies Immunoglobulin M (lgM) 2nd November 2021

Immunoglobulin M (lgM) Secondary antibody "Immunoglobulin M" (lgM) is the largest antibody and is the first antibody to appear in response to initial exposure to an antigen. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is made up of five or six units (i.e. mostly pentamers, but also hexamers), each of which is composed of two heavy chains (mu chains) and two light chains, linked together by disulfide bonds and a chain called J. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is present on… Continue reading
monoclonal antibodies Continue reading...

Monoclonal antibodies: What are monoclonal antibodies? 21st October 2021

What are monoclonal antibodies? Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-made proteins that mimic the immune system's ability to fight harmful antigens such as viruses. A monoclonal antibody is a type of protein produced in the laboratory that can bind to substances in the body, including cancer cells. However, there are many types of monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a monoclonal antibody is made to bind to a single substance. Monoclonal antibodies are used to treat some types of… Continue reading